Psychol. Certain traditional values even have become more prevalent such as obligation (Zeng and Greenfield, 2015), filial piety and ancestral worship (Yang, 1996). doi: 10.1080/02650487.1992.11104497, Cai, H., Kwan, V. S. Y., and Sedikides, C. (2011). Black-white differences in self-esteem: are they affected by response styles? (2013). Bus. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Assess. Belk 1988). Res. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02032.x, Obukhova, E., Zuckerman, E. W., and Zhang, J. In Study 1, we examined the change of Chinese NFU by investigating the reported NFU across different generations. “Uniqueness seeking,” in Handbook of Positive Psychology, eds C. R. Snyder and S. J. Lopez (New York, NY: Oxford University Press), 395–410. 6:1490. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01490, Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., and Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). J. These findings are consistent with a large body of research on the relevance of the NFU to consumer behavior in the West (for a review, see Lynn and Snyder, 2002). 0. Exploring the Antecedents and Consequences of Míng Pái Kòng (Brand-Name Fanaticism) Among China’s Generation Y. J. Glob. 40, 175–188. Historically, China is a collectivistic-oriented society where people are embedded in strong social bonds with their relatives or close in-group members (Triandis, 1995; Oyserman et al., 2002). Psychol. 128, 3–72. J. Among them, need for uniqueness has been widely considered a central feature of individualist cultures (Markus and Kitayama, 1991; Kim and Markus, 1999; Oyserman et al., 2002). Cross Cult. Testing for an increasing level of the NFU as reflected in unusual baby names allowed us to avoid the measurement problems associated with self-reports, while still controlling for age effects in examining cohort effects. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Following assessments of the scale’s latent structure, a series of validation studies examines the scale’s validity. Tsai, W. S., Yang, Q., and Liu, Y. Soc. J. Soc. Our findings have various potential practical implications, particularly for managers in organizational and industrial areas as well as for officials in government ministries. Future studies may examine how social events could have impacted changes in Chinese culture and psychology during a specific historical period. doi: 10.1177/00220221145486847, Talhelm, T., Zhang, X., Oishi, S., Shimin, C., Duan, D., and Kitayama, S. (2014). In examining the impacts of socio-economic change, researchers have relied on subjective self-reports or/and analysis of objective cultural products (Morling and Lamoreaux, 2008). This work was supported by National Social Science Fund of China (17ZDA324) and the Pioneer Initiative of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Feature Institutes Program (TSS-2015-06). Kelly Tepper Tian, William O. Bearden and Gary L. Hunter, Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. This trend in China further coincides with the upward trend of the NFU observed in the United States (Twenge et al., 2010) and Japan (Ogihara et al., 2015) where individualism has also been rising (Twenge et al., 2012; Grossmann and Varnum, 2015; Hamamura and Xu, 2015). A large body of research in the West suggests that people may express and satisfy their NFU in a number of ways, such as through group identity and consumption (Lynn and Snyder, 2002). Soc. Request Permissions. 0. The reported need for uniqueness averaged for each of the five birth cohorts (Study 1). Individualism & Collectivism. Factor analysis and construct validity of the narcissistic personality inventory. Cross Cult. In Study 1, we found a significant cross-generational increase in Chinese participants’ self-reported NFU. (2003). Front. Why Susie sells seashells by the seashore: implicit egotism and major life decisions. OUP is the world's largest university press with the widest global presence. Thus, such need for uniqueness may be constrained by the need for social assimilation (Brewer, 2012). Uniqueness involves a person’s distinctiveness in relation to other people. doi: 10.1177/0956797614563765, Hamamura, T., and Xu, Y. Regarding the change of collectivism, however, the picture is much more complex. J. Pers. In Study 2, we specifically examined the usage of unusual given names. © 2001 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc. Nevertheless, we acknowledge that important social events have the potential to produce a pronounced effect on cultural practice and even human psychology. Am. need for a reference data set that is considered to be the authoritative source of such data and is 100% complete. First, considering the large regional variation within China (e.g. Psychol. Probably because these appeals lead consumers to infer that the product should be popular because th… Children’s first names: an empirical study of social taste. doi: 10.1002/1097-4679(197604)32:2<258::AID-JCLP2270320211>3.0.CO;2-O, Sun, G., Chen, J., and Li, J. This result, however, is consistent with a prior study in which Varnum and Kitayama (2010) also found that girls were less likely than boys to receive popular names. The rise in uniqueness and individualism in Japan. View Need for uniqueness Research Papers on for free. In both studies, the researchers speculated that socio-cultural changes may have led to an increasing NFU among today’s Chinese. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2014.03.006, Lieberson, S., and Bell, E. O. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4684-3659-4, Snyder, C. R., and Shenkel, R. J. J. Sociol. New entrants in an industry bring new capacity and the desire to gain market share. The reference-group effect. This finding enriches our understanding of societal change’s psychological impact of societal change in China. It is the … J. Psychol. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.10.011, Zhang, J. J., and Tsai, W. (2015). Deviance or uniqueness, harmony or conformity? Thus, by studying changes in usage of unusual names, we can infer the change in the NFU, both as a cultural value and as an individual personality trait. Two recent cross-cultural studies provided some indirect evidence suggesting a rise of Chinese NFU. uniqueness definition: 1. the quality of being unique (= unusual, or special in some way): 2. the quality of being unique…. Examples of barriers to entry are the need for economies of scale, high customer loyalty for existing brands, large capital requirements (e.g. 124, 190–203. Together, using both subjective and objective methodologies, our two studies yielded consistent results: the NFU, both as a cultural value and as a personality trait, is on the rise in China. Chinese consumers’ online group buying. “Person-job fit: a conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique,” in International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. All Rights Reserved. 82:469. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.82.4.469, Ralston, D. A., Egri, C. P., Stewart, S., Terpstra, R. H., and Kaicheng, Y. One participant who failed to complete the survey was excluded, leaving a final sample of 579 participants (male = 251; female = 328), ranging in age from 13 to 62 years (M = 36.20, SD = 12.43). This finding, however, remains limited, as self-reports are subject to various methodology artifacts such as social desirability, response style, and reference group effect (Bachman and O’Malley, 1984; Paulhus, 1991; Heine et al., 2002). Overall, the mean score of the NFU was 3.06 (SD = 0.76). Future studies may explore the unique contribution of each possible factor using a more sophisticated research design. (1997). People may express their NFU in diverse ways such as through creativity (Fromkin, 1968; unpublished), subjective experiences (Fromkin, 1970), attitudes (Weir, 1971; unpublished), judgments (Duval, 1972; unpublished), personality traits (Snyder and Shenkel, 1976), group memberships (Snyder and Fromkin, 1977), and consumer behaviors (Lynn and Snyder, 2002). Typically, a Chinese given name consists of either one or two characters based on the preference of the child’s parents or elderly family members. Several limitations are notable. (2017). In reality, they must alter many of their practices, including job design, employee hiring and training, and reward systems design, as all these might play a role in determining whether organizations can channel such a personal need for the collective good. doi: 10.1080/08911762.2013.864372, Snyder, C. R., and Fromkin, H. L. (1977). doi: 10.1177/0022022115592968, Heine, S. J., Lehman, D. R., Peng, K., and Greenholtz, J. Pers. We propose that explaining (or providing reasons for) decisions shifts the focus from the choice options to the choice of reasons. Both correlations supported a significant decrease in name character frequency since 1950 (see Figure 2). Triandis, H. C. (1995). Am. Pers. Stud. Unlike the United States where the Social Security Administration’s database has documented baby names since 1880 or in other countries keeping public databases of names, no database of baby names is publicly available in China. In another study, Chinese Generation Y consumers also manifest a higher consumer NFU than their American counterparts (Simmers et al., 2014). The Ethics Committee of the Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences provided approval for the study. Psychol. The second set of studies have focused on the change of psychology mirrored in cultural products such as Ngram books. It was found that consumers’ need for uniqueness has three dimensions, creative choice counter-conformity, unpopular choice counter-conformity and avoidance of similarity, in the concept of a hatue couture brand. Edwards, J. R. (1991). 27, 94–105. Psychol. J. Advert. Second, given that a high NFU is beneficial for creativity (Dollinger, 2003; Kim et al., 2013) and a challenging issue in contemporary China happens to be the improvement of creativity among employees and organizations, managers, government officials and policymakers may make use of the heightened NFU to promote Chinese creativity. Burgeoning research in China has suggested that Chinese may express their uniqueness via creative or unpopular choices and special consumer behaviors (e.g., Tian et al., 2001; Tsai et al., 2013). Zeng, R., and Greenfield, P. M. (2015). 26, 311–324. The need to be unique may be related to the need to be creative. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Posited antecedents of consumers' need for uniqueness may suggest distal antecedents in a theory of consumption as an extension of self. People who feel very unique and different from others within their social group may increase their interaction within the group to maintain relevance and self-identification with the group (Brewer and Pickett, 1999). Effects of “favorability,” modality, and relevance upon acceptance of general personality interpretations prior to and after receiving diagnostic feedback. Consumers' need for uniqueness may fit into an overarching theory of the role that consuming material goods plays in people's sense of identity (cf. (2012). Bus. In one study, Chinese college students were found to report a higher NFU than American college students (Bian and Forsythe, 2012). The internal consistency reliability coefficients for the consumers' need for uniqueness CONSUMERS'NEED FOR UNIQUENESS 181 TABLE 3 Demographic Profile of Low and High Consumers' Need for Uniqueness Groups in Study 1 Consumers' Need for Uniqueness Low High Demographics n % n % Sex 2.46 (ns) Female 25 54.4 27 71.1 Male 21 45.7 11 28.9 Marital status 3.26 (ns) Married 33 71.7 … doi: 10.1177/0956797617700622, Simmers, C. S., Parker, R. S., and Schaefer, A. D. (2014)). Emmons, R. A. Yang, K. S. (1996). FIGURE 2. Front. Consumers’ need for uniqueness: scale development and validation. Int. Second, our goal is to delineate the overall trend of the NFU over the past several decades, rather than short-term changes caused by any particular event. Res. J. The seriousness of the threat depends on the barriers to enter a certain industry. Future replication may employ larger sample representing people from all areas in China; and if possible, also examine possible variations of the change within China. Although no direct examination of this issue has yet taken place, a number of studies do support this possibility, particularly in the domain of consumer behavior. doi: 10.1177/0146167213508151, Kim, H. S., and Markus, H. R. (1999). Psychol. Psychol. doi: 10.1002/j.2162-6057.2003.tb00828.x. Then, they are motivated to ‘pursue some degree of distinctiveness’ (Lynn & Snyder, 2002, p. 236), such as the use of jewellery or the scarf in the previous examples. Pers. 48, 291–300. Studies of independence and conformity: I. In this regard, we think we have achieved our goal by revealing the rising trend of the NFU. doi: 10.1002/per.852, Campbell, W. K., Bonacci, A. M., Shelton, J., Exline, J. J., and Bushman, B. J. Decis. Share actual examples from your own work history to back up your answers. J. Pers. J. Sociol. They were asked to complete a 10-min survey in exchange for 5 Chinese Yuan. 3, 511–554. We used four items to measure the NFU on a 5-point scale (1 = not at all/never, 5 = very much/very often) (Lynn and Harris, 1997). (2014). Because the pursuit of differentness (or counterconformity motivation) varies across individuals to influence consumer responses, we develop and validate a trait measure of consumers’ need for uniqueness.