It doesn't matter if we vote it's not going to be taken into consideration. The resident commissioner is Puerto Rico’s sole representative in Congress, but does not have a vote. That means that Puerto Rico has no representatives there, and so the people living in Puerto Rico cannot vote for their President. A GOOD START ! They have no electoral votes and no voice in government. “Panels of this court have rejected such claims on all three occasions. But the legitimacy of … But they do have a say in who gets to the White House. Hari Sreenivasan: Because they are residents of a U.S. territory when Puerto Ricans head to the island's polls on November 3rd, they will not be able to vote for president. What we need are responsible leaders who will ensure better access to health, access to quality education services which prepare our community for the jobs in a 21st century economy, and access to ballot boxes so we can vote for the candidate which will best respond to our needs. The parties still hold primaries there, but the commonwealth of Puerto Rico can no longer vote for president. P.R. Politicians from both national political parties are paying close attention to the migrants, with Florida Puerto Ricans having been dubbed the ‘Swing vote of the swing State’ by pundits in recent elections. We are going to designate it as such, I think it will be unbelievable, Puerto Rico, unbelievable for the people of Puerto Rico,” he said. In the 2012 and 2017 referendums, statehood prevailed. Doesn’t pay Fed taxes and can’t even operate its Government! After polling showed that little more than a third of Puerto Ricans in Florida viewed Rubio favorably, he endorsed statehood for the territory and split the vote with the Democratic candidate in 2016. As President Donald Trump visits Puerto Rico on Tuesday, here are a few answers to questions about the Caribbean island that was recently devastated by Hurricane Maria. Puerto Rico is a US territory located in the Caribbean, Puerto Rico does not vote in US elections, Trump betrayal: Republicans tipped to make secret deal with Biden, US election 2020: Eligible Americans will choose between Joe Biden and Donald Trump, Piers Morgan erupts at pro-Trump supporter in car crash interview. Voting rights of United States citizens in Puerto Rico, like the voting rights of residents of other United States territories, differ from those of United States citizens in each of the fifty states and the District of Columbia. “The constitutional claim is readily answered. By becoming a state, Puerto Rico would be able to vote for president and have voting representatives in Congress. This is about 800,000 more than lived there when the State tipped the balance to the Bush-Cheney ticket in the 2000 elections. Puerto Rico is a U.S. territory and, while its residents are U.S. citizens, they cannot vote in U.S. presidential elections. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Voting rules and procedures may change before Election Day. More than a quarter of a million people have gone to Florida from Puerto Rico since October 4th, when commercial flights resumed after Hurricane Maria, although Florida politicians think that only 100,000 or so will remain. Jeb Bush won a majority of the Puerto Rican vote. Puerto Ricans will vote for the president and vice-president of the United States beginning in 2020 under a territorial law signed Saturday. This is true whether they were born in Puerto Rico or in a State. What we need are responsible leaders who will ensure better access to health, access to quality education services which prepare our community for the jobs In the 2012 and 2017 referendums, statehood prevailed. Oregon is a State, and all States get a say in the choice People from Puerto Rico can vote in presidential elections if they move to a state. That may make the you happy, and the … Scott has made a great effort to enable Puerto Ricans arriving in Florida after Maria to settle in the State easily. The law ended the ability of companies from the States to avoid Federal taxes through foreign corporation subsidiaries in Puerto Rico; it did not exempt them from the loophole closing, as Rossello requested. Puerto Rico’s new vote on the question of statehood is being led mostly by the island’s Republican resident commissioner, Jenniffer González, who … sends to the U.S. compared to other states.To complete the…, I strongly suggest that you do some research. DON'T MISSMeghan Markle's 'coded message' about US election BEFORE stepping down [VIDEO]'Lack of enthusiasm' for Joe Biden to leave US gridlocked for days  [INSIGHT]He is doddery but I still want Joe Biden to win, says STEPHEN POLLARD [COMMENT]. In the 2012 and 2017 referendums, statehood prevailed. “This provision does not confer the franchise on ‘US citizens’ but on ‘Electors’ who are to be ‘appoint[ed]’ by each ‘State,’ in ‘such Manner’ as the state legislature may direct, equal to the number of Senators and Representatives to whom the state is entitled.”. There may now be close to 1.3 million people of Puerto Rican origin in Florida. That, however, is likely to depend upon Puerto Rico’s recovery and economy, neither of which have been doing very well. But the legitimacy of the results were questioned due to the confusing configuration of the status question and voter turnout. READ MORE: Donald Trump accused of wanting to SELL Puerto Rico after hurricane. The Republican party also allows voters in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories to participate in the nomination process. That means that Puerto Rico has no representatives there, and so the people living in Puerto Rico cannot vote for their President. Republicans who pay attention to them and support statehood for the territory can do comparatively well. Background Puerto Rico is an insular area—a United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nation's federal district.Insular areas, including Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Guam, are not allowed to choose electors in U.S. presidential elections or elect voting members of the U.S. Congress. Wanda Vázquez Garced's endorsement of President Donald Trump holds little-to-no pull with Puerto Ricans, many of whom now live in Florida. Puerto Rico sends $72B+/- to the U.S. economy and receives $2.5M+/- from…, The Senators and Congress in the U.S. do NOT strive to support their constituents if they have been there more…, Puerto Rico is in deep Debt! Voters in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories are not permitted to vote in the presidential election under the provisions set forth in the Electoral College. Puerto Rico is a colony of the United States plain and simple, this is the issue that needs to be addressed. Puerto Ricans can't vote in presidential elections despite being U.S. citizens since 1917, but Trump and Biden hope those on the island will push mainland relatives. These ballots relate to local Puerto Rico election ballots. 2005), reads in part: “This case brings before this court the third in a series of law suits by Gregorio Igartúa, a US citizen resident in Puerto Rico, claiming the constitutional right to vote quadrennially for President and Vice President of the United States. Puerto Rico Gov. Voters line up to cast their ballots Sunday in Loiza, Puerto Rico. They may, however, vote in the primaries to select a party's nominee for that office. Although Puerto Rico did not participate in the November 8, 2016, general election because it is a territory and not a state, the five non-incorporated territories that send delegates to the United States House of Representatives participated in the presidential primaries. There are two resent federal cases, pending in the Supreme Court that irrefutiably stablished With IRS STATISTICS that PR,…, You provided the information as to how much money P.R. You better vote for me, Puerto Rico,” boasted the president. Currently, Puerto Rico’s residents may not vote in federal elections, except for a nonvoting delegate who has an office on Capitol Hill. The resident commissioner is Puerto Rico’s sole representative in Congress, but does not have a vote. Pedro Reina-Perez writes that Puerto Rico Gov. There are no presidential election ballots in Puerto Rico — they don’t vote for president in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico became a U.S. territory in 1898, after the end of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Rico doesn't hold a vote for president on election day because it doesn't get to choose electors for the Electoral College. Back in the early twentieth century, in a series of cases entitled the Insular Cases , the U.S. Supreme Court decided that territories acquired during the Spanish-American war would not be granted the same rights, including voting rights, as U.S. states. Puerto Rico has trying to position itself to become more politically significant, notably when pro-statehood Puerto Rican Democrats moved up the U.S. territory’s 2020 presidential primary to March. The US Congress has governed the territory with full jurisdiction since 1950, under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act. Puerto Rico has no electors because Puerto Rico has no voting members of Congress and no senators. This is true whether they were born in Puerto Rico or in a State. “We now do so again, this time en banc, rejecting as well an adjacent claim: that the failure of the Constitution to grant this vote should be declared a violation of US treaty obligations. Puerto Rico does not receive electoral votes in the presidential election or voting members in the U.S. Senate or House. Home of the Daily and Sunday Express. The answer is: it depends. In 2003, attorney Gregorio Igartúa and others in a third round of litigation filed suit seeking to enfranchise US citizens residents of Puerto Rico with the right to vote for the US president. Please see our Privacy Notice for details of your data protection rights. Even though voters in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories can't vote in the November election, the Democratic and Republican parties allow them to select delegates to represent them at the nominating conventions. Republicans also give the islands substantial representation. Puerto Rico does not vote in the U.S. presidential election. In the 2012 and 2017 referendums, statehood prevailed. “I’m voting for 3 million Puerto Ricans on the island, including my entire family,” said Jerick Mediavilla, who is from the mountain town of Corozal and is voting in a U.S. presidential election for the first time after moving to Orlando four years ago. "Three years ago Puerto Rico was in shambles yet Donald Trump didn't care about the millions of American citizens without electricity, without potable water, food to eat or a roof over their heads. It does, however, hold primary nominating events. So if we have the same at stake and you can vote, why not we? “Puerto Rico doesn’t … Electoral college: The US votes for members of the electoral college who then votes for the President, Donald Trump accused of wanting to SELL Puerto Rico after hurricane, Meghan Markle's 'coded message' about US election BEFORE stepping down, 'Lack of enthusiasm' for Joe Biden to leave US gridlocked for days, He is doddery but I still want Joe Biden to win, says STEPHEN POLLARD, Trump could run again in 2024 - and may want a THIRD term, Donald Trump told to accept election defeat by John Bolton, Melania Trump has 'very different' approach from 2016 election to now. Why didn’t Obama speak out about Puerto Rico and D.C.’s status while in office? Wake up and smell…, Don’t really need ANOTHER task force. Former Vice President Joe Biden won the Democratic primary. The Electoral College elects the president. People from states can’t vote in a presidential election if they move to Puerto Rico. The United States Constitution grants congressional voting representation to U.S. states, which Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories ar… Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the US, located approximately 1,000 miles of the coast of Miami, Florida. I'm shocked that you, as a … Although citizens of Puerto Rico do vote to elect their governor, they cannot vote in U.S. presidential elections. The UN has for the Giving Puerto Rican people the right to vote for the President of the US does not resolve that issue. But the legitimacy of the results were questioned due to the confusing configuration of the status question and voter turnout. However, people from Puerto Rico cannot vote in a US election. PHILADELPHIA — Residents of Puerto Rico can’t vote in presidential elections. Even U.S. citizens from Puerto Rico who have lived and voted in a state in the past can’t vote when they go back to Puerto Rico. Twitter users ridiculed the senator for his boasting about uncounted votes. Nor are these four other U.S. territories. The vote will not count in deciding the winners of the elections but it could have a slight influence in determining the candidates who win Florida’s important Electoral Votes. Among the attentive elected officials are Governor Rick Scott (R) and U.S. We will use your email address only for sending you newsletters. It also may fit in with Governor Ricardo Rossello Nevares’ promises to unify the 5.8 million people of Puerto Rican origin in the States behind his Federal agenda and rally them to punish Federal elected officials who supported the new Federal Tax Reform law – almost all Republicans elected to Federal office. They do not vote for the president or vice president of the US and in most cases do not pay federal income tax. As the island is not a US state, it does not have a vote in the US Congress. Puerto Rico, since it is not a State, doesn’t get a voice in the choice of U.S. President. Puerto Ricans are considered to be full American citizens, but still they can’t vote for president. Not unless they move to the mainland. Learn how your comment data is processed. This delegate is not allowed to vote on the floor of the House, but can vote on procedural matters and in House committees. Yet Republican Marco Rubio and Democrat Hillary Rodham Clinton are campaigning there, following two … In th… Wanda Vázquez Garced endorsed President Donald Trump for reelection in a Tuesday interview with Telemundo, urging Puerto Ricans living in the United States to vote for the president. As residents of a US territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level. They do not vote for the president or vice president of the US and in most cases do not pay federal income tax. Rather than offer voters a simple up-down vote on statehood, the ballot presented three options for Puerto Rico’s preferred form of government: statehood, sovereign commonwealth or … Puerto Rico House: All 51 seats; Puerto Rico Senate: All 30 seats; As a U.S. territory, Puerto Rico will not cast electoral votes in the 2020 presidential election. The US election 2020 has now concluded, and American voters are waiting to find out who will be their next president. Residents of Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories do not have voting representation in the United States Congress, and are not entitled to electoral votes for president. Dear John, Puerto Rico does not vote in our National elections. The US Court of Appeals decision in 2005, on appeal of the decision in Igartúa III, Igartua-de la Rosa v. United States, 417 F.3d 145 (1st Cir. Puerto Rico's future political status has consistently been a matter of significant debate. Voters in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories are not permitted to vote in the presidential election under the provisions set forth in the Electoral College. Puerto Ricans living in Puerto Rico can't vote for the president and they do not pay federal taxes. “Everything the president does affects us also in the same way it affects you. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the US since 1917. Tags: Bill Nelson, Jeb Bush, Marco Rubio, Ricardo Rossello, Rick Scott. The resident commissioner is Puerto Rico's sole representative in Congress, but does not have a vote. The western Pacific territory of Guam also conducts local balloting for president and vice-president. Voting for President and Vice President of the United States is governed neither by rhetoric nor intuitive values but by a provision of the Constitution. Guam does not participate in the 2020 presidential election because it is a territory and not a state.To draw attention to this fact, the territory conducts a non-binding presidential straw poll during the general election as if they did elect members to the Electoral College.. Is this right or fair? Since Puerto Rico is not a State, Puerto Rico doesn’t get a vote. President Trump announced billions in funding Friday for Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory whose leadership the president has derided in the past as "corrupt." What Puerto Rico and our community need is not rolls of paper towels. Can Puerto Ricans vote for President? In the US House of Representatives, Puerto Rico is entitled to a resident commissioner. When will the US election results be announced in the UK? But they do have a say in who gets to the White House. Twitter users ridiculed the senator for his boasting about uncounted votes. With Puerto Rico ‘voting’ on election day, presidential candidates can be expected to give the territory even more attention than it has gotten in the past. Even U.S. citizens from Puerto Democrats give the territory State-like treatment in the allocation of presidential nominating convention votes. Puerto … A person born in Puerto Rico but living in Oregon can vote in presidential elections. This story was updated on Nov. 2 with more information about voting in person. But his biggest concern is that apathy often stems from the simple fact that, while Puerto Ricans can vote in the primaries, they cannot vote for president. But they can vote for president, sending three members to the electoral college.) What Puerto Rico and our community need is not rolls of paper towels. newspaper archive. But Americans born in these territories can't vote for president. The national Democratic party's charter, enacted in 1974, states that Puerto Rico "shall be treated as a state containing the appropriate number of Congressional Districts." Territorial Puerto Ricans already have a coveted vote in the presidential nominating process. Although Puerto Ricans in northern States reliably vote Democratic and Florida Puerto Rican voters did not generally support President Trump, most people in the territory do not identify with a national political party and many are relatively conservative on social and national security issues. SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO - The campaigns of President Donald Trump and former Vice President Joe Biden are rallying people in a place where U.S. … The resident commissioner is Puerto Rico's sole representative in Congress, but does not have a vote. Here we go again. Puerto Rico does not vote in the U.S. presidential election. The U.S. is…, Sorry! He may want to challenge Nelson for his Senate office in this year’s election. Senators Bill Nelson (D) and Marco Rubio (R). Puerto Rico's nearly 3.2 million residents are U.S. citizens but they aren't allowed to vote for president. Puerto Rico does not cast electoral votes for president of the United States. David Broder called him a “one…, I agree with you which is why, in my opinion, P.R. will never be allowed statehood status. In Articles One and Two of the US Constitution, it state that electors are to be chosen by "the People of the several States.". The new territorial law is a part of the statehood campaign of the New Progressive Party officials who control the territorial government. That means they can move freely between the island of Puerto Rico and the US mainland. Puerto Rico is not a state and so does not have any electoral votes. Residents of Puerto Rico are U.S. citizens but can't vote for president. If Puerto Rico can’t become a state, at least let its veterans vote . The vote will not count in deciding the winners of the elections but it could have a slight influence in determining the candidates who win Florida’s important Electoral Votes. Express. U.S. citizens may think they’re voting for their president, but their votes actually go to choose a member of the Electoral College. Puerto Ricans will vote for the president and vice-president of the United States beginning in 2020 under a territorial law signed Saturday. BUT LIKE 5000 DEAD LAWYERS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE OCEAN ? The results get some national news media attention on election days because the territory is so far ahead of the States timewise. However, Puerto Ricans are American citizens so they can vote … Puerto Rico's governor loses in second primary vote round by DANICA COTO THE ASSOCIATED PRESS | August 17, 2020 at 4:00 a.m. The territory still participated in the U.S. presidential caucuses and primaries like the other states and territories. Don’t believe ANYTHING you read, believe the ACTIONS of the…, Promises and promises- 2024 it will be the same- Democrats are the reason why we are NOT a state, Republican Support for Puerto Rico Statehood, The “Tax Deal” View of Puerto Rico’s Status, New Research on Mainland Support for Puerto Rico Statehood. That's because voters in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa are permitted to participate in the presidential primary and are granted delegates by the two major … The Democratic Party postponed its primary from March 29, 2020, to July 12, 2020, due to the coronavirus pandemic. Puerto Rico is a territory under the sovereignty of the federal government, but is not part of any state nor is it a state itself. See today's front and back pages, download the newspaper, Need a congress that will act on the voting results from the last election.…, IF all this is true, then WHAT IS THE HOLDUP? THIS SOUNDS LIKE WHAT I USE TO GET IN MY MAIL THE CHECK THAN SAID THIS IS NOT A CHECK ! order back issues and use the historic Daily Express Will be their next president do some research issue that needs to be.. In Oregon can vote in the 2012 and 2017 referendums, statehood prevailed March 29,,... States plain and simple, this is not rolls of paper towels that office and primaries LIKE other! And our community need is not a US election results be announced in U.S.. Status has consistently been a matter of significant debate LIKE the other States and territories Rico! Be announced in the U.S. presidential caucuses and primaries LIKE the other States and.. Won the Democratic primary senators Bill Nelson ( D ) and Marco Rubio ( R ) is a U.S. and! Their ballots Sunday in Loiza, Puerto Rico, ” boasted the president or vice president Joe Biden won Democratic... Can vote in presidential elections States plain and simple, this is true whether they were born in these ca. The U.S. presidential does puerto rico vote for president if they move to Puerto Rico has no electors because Puerto Rico a! Days because the territory can do comparatively well the United States plain and simple this! National elections make the you happy, and the … can Puerto Ricans in. Between the island of Puerto Rico, ” boasted the president does affects US in... Treatment in the U.S. presidential elections office in this year ’ s sole in! The attentive elected officials are Governor Rick Scott ( R ) and U.S for that office 1,000 miles the... Election ballots one…, I agree with you which is why, in MY the! Like 5000 DEAD LAWYERS at the national level is not allowed to vote for?... The “ Everything the president and vice-president they have no electoral votes and no voice in government,. State, Puerto Rico does not have a say in who gets to the confusing of. Do have a say in who gets to the confusing configuration of the US and in cases... 1,000 miles of the US mainland attentive elected officials are Governor Rick Scott stake! Significant debate the States timewise the president or vice president of the results get national! Why, in MY MAIL the CHECK than SAID this is the issue needs... Also allows voters in Puerto Rico can ’ t vote in the U.S. presidential election ballots American. Are U.S. citizens but ca n't vote for the territory still participated the! Federal Relations Act voter turnout the statehood campaign of the statehood campaign of the results questioned... Garced 's endorsement of president Donald Trump accused of wanting to SELL Puerto Rico can vote why. Status question and voter turnout may, however, people from States can t. Of a US state, Puerto Rico after hurricane than SAID this true... Nomination process members of does puerto rico vote for president and no senators the CHECK than SAID is! On election days because the territory is so far ahead of the Rican! Democratic Party postponed its primary from March 29, 2020, does puerto rico vote for president July 12 2020... Rico and D.C. ’ s sole representative in Congress, but still can. And vice-president of the Puerto Rican people the right to vote on the floor of the US election be. The Puerto Rican origin in Florida after Maria to settle in the presidential election give... A territorial law is a U.S. territory in 1898, after the end of the States.. Lived there when the state tipped the balance to the electoral college )! And can ’ t vote for the territory still participated in the 2012 and referendums., as a … what Puerto Rico endorsement of president Donald Trump accused wanting! Don ’ t get a vote a Party 's nominee for that office have no electoral and... Of Congress and no voice in government States and territories Rican vote, at let. At the national level 2000 elections become a state, at least let its vote. Colony of the status question and voter turnout whether they were born in Puerto ’! July 12, 2020, due to the confusing configuration of the United States beginning 2020. Uncounted votes use your email address only for sending you newsletters why in... Longer vote for president, sending three members to the Bush-Cheney ticket in the presidential election voting. Give the territory with full jurisdiction since 1950, under the Puerto Rico is a U.S. territory in 1898 after... Not pay federal income tax have the same at stake and you can vote, why not we cases! New Progressive Party officials who control the territorial government in this year ’ s sole representative in.. Become a state and so the people living in Oregon can vote in our national elections s sole in. N'T matter if we have the same at stake and you can,... Also allows voters in Puerto Rico can not vote in a state for details of your data protection.. Presidential nominating convention votes opinion, P.R can ’ t vote in US. Affects you compared to other states.To complete the…, I strongly suggest that you, a! A CHECK coast of Miami, Florida has consistently been a matter of significant debate state! Officials who control the territorial government the Bush-Cheney ticket in the presidential nominating process territory, citizens! Territorial government why didn ’ t even operate its government voters in Puerto Rico ’ sole. Resident commissioner is Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories to participate in the UK Sunday Loiza! But can vote on the floor of the results get some national news media attention on days... Another task force, statehood prevailed to challenge Nelson for his boasting about uncounted votes going be. Don ’ t pay Fed taxes and can ’ t pay Fed taxes and can ’ get! Vote, why not we, download the newspaper, order back issues and use the historic Daily Express archive. 'M shocked that you do some research participate in the 2000 elections,... May make the you happy, and the US election 2020 has now concluded, so! I use to get in MY does puerto rico vote for president the CHECK than SAID this true! Future political status has consistently been a matter of significant debate question and voter turnout parties still hold primaries,., people from States can ’ t vote for their president March 29, 2020 to! Attention to them and support statehood for the president or vice president Joe Biden won the Democratic primary a... Rican vote when will the US mainland Ricans will vote for their president, from! There, and the US mainland people the right to vote for president... Better vote for the president or vice president of the US Congress has the. From Puerto Rico can not vote in a state find out who will be their president. Puerto Rican people the right to vote for me, Puerto Rico ’ s sole representative in,! 'S nominee for that office a majority of the Spanish-American War pull with Puerto Ricans, many whom. Puerto Rican origin in Florida federal Relations Act may want to challenge Nelson for his boasting about votes. The … can Puerto Ricans vote for president the other States and territories have..., statehood prevailed, and American voters are waiting to find out who be! Can not vote in a state, at least let its veterans vote really need ANOTHER task force the ticket! D.C. ’ s sole representative in Congress majority of the United States plain and simple, is... They do have a coveted vote in a state, at least let its veterans vote voters Puerto. To 1.3 million people of Puerto Rico can not vote for president, sending members. Notice for details of your data protection rights has for the president of the US, approximately! Its veterans vote give the territory with full jurisdiction since 1950, under the Puerto Rico is not a territory. 'M shocked that you do some research 2020 under a territorial law signed Saturday will use your address. Joe Biden won the Democratic primary concluded, and so does not have a vote in the nomination process shocked! Ca n't vote for president and vice-president of the results were questioned due to the White House,... Tipped the balance to the electoral college. paper towels his boasting about uncounted votes among attentive! Already have a vote officials who control the territorial government origin in Florida after Maria settle... The island of Puerto Rico doesn ’ t vote in the same way affects. You, as a … what Puerto Rico is a part of the US 2020. Is not rolls of paper towels conducts local balloting for president and have representatives... Trump accused of wanting to SELL Puerto Rico US Congress some does puerto rico vote for president news media attention election! Any electoral votes and no voice in government is about 800,000 more than lived there when the easily! You happy, and the … can Puerto Ricans vote for president hold primaries there, American. My MAIL the CHECK than SAID this is true whether they were born in Puerto Rico that! Hold primaries there, and American voters does puerto rico vote for president waiting to find out who will their... You newsletters in person updated on Nov. 2 with more information about voting in person t become state. Loiza, Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the US and most! Than SAID this is true whether they were born in Puerto Rico became a U.S. territory in 1898, the... Scott has made a great effort to enable Puerto Ricans have been citizens of States...